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> Spirit of the age, spirit of the time


• German origin, translates literally as "time spirit”, "time mind”

“The dominant set of ideals and beliefs that motivate the actions of the members of a society in a particular period in time”  (

“Was das Individuum betrifft, so ist ohnehin jedes ein Sohn seiner Zeit.“

(No man can surpass his own time, for the spirit of his time is also his own spirit.)

(G. Hegel)

“Without deviation from the norm, no progress is possible.”

(F. Zappa)

Zeitgeist in psychology

• Lewin’s equation: B = ƒ {P, E}

   –Where B is behavior, P is person, and E is the environmentØ

   > Interactionism

• Sputnik Shock: origin of psychological testing

• Zeitgeist@RAB: Culturally sensitive testing  

                                > Adaptation to respective population in data collection


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